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The Framingham Offspring Study was initiated to assess familial and genetic factors as determinants of coronary heart disease. Kusadasi chat first person was examined in September and four years later 5, persons had received their first examination. The group has now been followed in the Study for twenty-four subsequent biennial examinations.
The need for more information arises from the fact that the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease is incompletely framungham, estimation of risk is imprecise, and the pattern of cardiovascular disease incidence is changing; these changes need to be documented.
Changing patterns of cigarette smoking, nutritional habits and exercise patterns as well as changes in other aspects of lifestyle and advances in medical care may all influence future morbidity and mortality rates for cardiovascular disease. New cases of clinically recognizable cardiovascular disease are less predictable in disease free subjects over age 60, and an already large and growing proportion of the total cardiovascular disease events is now first expressed at these ages.
Recently available, technologically advanced measurement tools such as echocardiography need to be evaluated as risk assessors in various age groups. Similarly, the predictive efficacy of recently available lipoprotein cholesterol and apoprotein measurements need to be demonstrated for messqge onset age less than 60 as well as later onset cardiovascular disease. Thus, as changes in early detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease advance, prospective epidemiology is needed chat and dating sites document the value and impact of these t in an organized fashion.
Finally, the availability of prospective data on two generations adds to the uniqueness of the Framingham Study among ongoing studies of CVD epidemiology.
A determination of the extent and mechanisms by which cardiovascular diseases cluster in families is another important goal of the Framingham Study. Inthe National Framigham on Aging initiated a study on senile dementia using the Framingham Heart Study cohort.
The study was deed to determine morbidity and mortality outcomes among the subjects identified as suffering from dementia at the 15th biennial examination and to determine incidence of senile dementia among those ddating free of dementia at the 15th biennial examination. Outcome of nursing home admissions was also determined in all study participants.
Biennial comprehensive examinations of the Framingham Heart Study cohort have taken place since After that time, the Boston University Medical Center, in collaboration with, and using facilities and equipment made available by NHLBI, was responsible for the examinations. Endpoints include coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease.
Members of the Offspring Study were examined for the first time between andfor the second time between andfor the third time between and Examinations consist of a complete physical examination including resting electrocardiogram, medical history, non-invasive cardiovascular examination, lung function assessment, lipoprotein cholesterol and apoprotein measurements, SMA 25, personal history interview, blood cell ion flux measurement, and platelet function and blood clotting factors measurement.
The 27th exam of approximately survivors of the original cohort is complete.
The 28th exam has begun and is ahead of schedule. The 7th exam of the Offspring Cohort began in September and was completed in December with 3, participants examined. The genome scan is complete with approximately 1, samples from families. Analysis of the genetic and nongenetic data is ongoing and extensive covering such areas as the genetics of lipids, lifetime risk of coronary heart disease, trends in events following Q-wave myocardial infarction, factors affecting left ventricular hypertrophy, and the prevalence and determinants of heart valve disorders.
Initiation of the Third Generation Study was announced in November Beginning inthe Third Generation Study enrolled 3, grandchildren of the Framingham Heart Study's original enrollees. Key goals are to identify new risk factors for heart, lung, and blood diseases, identify genes that contribute to good health and to the development of heart, lung, and blood disease, and to develop new imaging tests that can detect very early stages of coronary atherosclerosis in otherwise healthy adults.